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【视点】夏至:昼晷已云极,宵漏自此长

2019年06月20日 09:37

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每年的公历6月21日(或22日),第十个节气夏至如约而至。根据古代历法,农历四五六月为夏季,夏至节气大致在农历五月中旬,表示夏天已经过了一半。

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♥ 夏至这天太阳运行至黄经90度,直射地面的位置到达一年的最北端,几乎直射北回归线。

♥ 夏至这天北半球各地的白昼时间达到全年最长,黑夜则最短。

♥ 夏至是二十四节气中最早被确定的节气。早在公元前七世纪,我们的先人用土圭测出正午日影最短的一天,这天就是夏至。

♥ 夏至是阳气最旺的时节,阳气在这一天强盛到极点,盛极必衰,阴阳转换,阴气也从这一天开始滋长,所以说“夏至一阴生”。

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一候鹿角解:夏至日阴气生而阳气始衰,所以阳性的鹿角便开始脱落。

二候蝉始鸣:雄性的知了在夏至后因感阴气之生便鼓翼而鸣。

三候半夏生:半夏是喜阴的药草,在仲夏的沼泽地或水田中生长。

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对于“数九”,更为人所知的或许是冬至九九歌。其实,夏至也有自己的九九歌宋人周遵道在《豹隐纪谈》中就载有一首《夏至九九歌》:

“一九二九,扇子不离手;

三九二十七,吃茶如蜜汁;

四九三十六,争向街头宿;

五九四十五,树头秋叶舞;

六九五十四,乘凉不入寺;

七九六十三,入眠寻被单;

八九七十二,被单添夹被;

九九八十一,家家打炭壑。”

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天文历法中的“夏至”与气象学中的“盛夏”不是同步的,虽然“夏至一阴始生”,白天开始变短,但由于地面接收热量的积累效应,天气还要继续热下去,到一个月后的“大暑”才热到顶点,所以气象学中的盛夏要比夏至推迟一个月才出现。

 

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祭神祀祖:夏至时值麦收,自古以来有在此时庆祝丰收、祭祀祖先之俗,以祈求消灾年丰。

消夏避伏:夏至日,妇女们即互相赠送折扇、脂粉等什物。

夏至吃面:冬至饺子夏至面,北京、山东等地居民,在夏至这天都会吃面条。

食麦粽:《吴江县志》:“夏至日,作麦粽,祭先毕,则以相饷。”

食夏至饼:夏至日,农家擀面为薄饼,烤熟,祭祖后食用或分赠亲友,俗谓“夏至饼”。

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夏至是阳气最旺、同时阴气开始生长的时节,这时的养生保健,一方面要顺应夏季阳盛于外的特点、注意保护阳气;另一方面又要适应阴气始生于下的变化,以保证阴气的顺利上升。

要预防中暑,避免日晒;

乘凉、冷饮、吹冷气要适当;

锻炼选在早晚进行,不宜过分剧烈;

多吃苦味食物,宜清补。

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文章来源:http://www.71.cn/2019/0620/1047657.shtml